Tasawwuf originates from the fundamental principles of Islam, springs from the text of the Qur’an, Hadith, life and behavior of the companions of Prophet Mohammed (let peace and Allah’s blessing be upon him). Beside nearness of Allah Tasawwuf also teaches one to purify one`s self, improve one`s morals, and build up one`s inner and outer life in order to attain everlasting bliss.
Tasawwuf has greatly contributed to the study and practical implementation of such ideas as “obedience to Allah (the Lord of the world)”, “mutual respect and friendly attitude of people towards each other”, “control over one’s shortcomings and vices”, “recovery from satanic instigation”, “kind attitude towards other people”, “being aware of the surety of the Day of Judgment” and so on.
Firstly, there is a person’s attitude towards his Creator. From the Qur’an and the teachings of the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) we learn that this attitude should be inspired by love, hope, fear, gratitude, patience, trust, self-sacrifice and complete devotion; and that He should be felt to be constantly near. This is the inwardness of belief. The second is man’s attitude to his fellow men: Allah and his Prophet (peace be upon him) have taught us that this should be inspired by sympathy, justice, kindness, unselfishness, generosity, sternness on matters of principle, leniency wherever possible, and that we must avoid pride, jealousy, malice, greed, selfishness, miserliness and ill-nature. These qualities will not be found explained in the books of Fiqh; it required a group of people distinct from the jurists to determine and develop the science of the soul. Of these two parts of the inner Shari‘at, it is the first, i.e. man’s relationship with God, which is the root, the moral attitude of man towards his fellows being derived from it. It is the realization that all men are creatures of the One God, and that He wishes us to treat them with mercy and kindness, and at times justice, which should reflect His own sublime qualities, and that if we succeed in this we shall win His pleasure, that is the real basis of morality.